Monday, January 21, 2019

024 A Multiple Choice Questions Test on Constitutions of Countries

Free Thinking in this World, to a certain extent depends on "Rule of Law" prevailing in different countries. Having a Constitution as "Base Law" is prima facie an essential requirement of a Country which cherishes and nourishes Free Thinking.

1: CONSTITUTION: `Grundgesetz (BaseLaw)` is the Constituion of
a`France b`Germany c`Italy d`Austria .

2: CONSTITUTION : `Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Court of Justice)` is the highest Court in
a`Austria b`Belgium c`Germany d`Poland .

3: CONSTITUTIONS : Which of the following Constitutions is the most amended Constitution
a`USA b`France c`Russia d`India .

4: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: Country with no written Constitution :
a`Britain b`France c`Germany d`Japan .

5: WORLD CURRENT AFFAIRS - which of the following countries claim the status ‴federal representative democratic constitutional monarchy‴ ?
a`Indonesia b`Malaysia c`Cambodia d`Vietnam .

6: HISTORY OF MODERN USA: Main Author of American Constitution :
a`Adams b`Hamilton c`Jefferson d`Washington .

7: CONSTITUTION : LAW : Corte Suprema di Cassazione is the Highest Court of
a`Greece b`Italy c`Germany d`France .

8: CONSTITUTIONS : RUSSIA according to its Constitution is named
a`Russian Federation b`Russian Republic c`USSR d`Russian Federal Republic .

9: Political Geography - LIECHTENSTEIN is a Constitutional Monarchy in
a`Asia b`Africa c`Europe d`South America .

10: CONSTITUTION : Which of the following is true about French Constituion?
a`does not have a Written Constitution b`Cannot be amended c`calls France as Secular and Democratic d`calls France only as Democratic, but not secular .

Saturday, June 29, 2013

#023 Why does Jesus have nothing helpful to say about the ranking of obligations?

Here is an interesting piece by Matthew Parris, dated 29th June 2013, published in Spectator,UK.

Click to read the original piece: Click.

A quote from the piece:
" ... I cannot help every coal tit. I cannot want every capable applicant for pupillage to succeed. I can, however, adopt a very tiny sample of fledgling tits or fledgling lawyers, and powerfully wish these, ‘my’ protégés, well. It’s not about whether you should want to help other creatures. It’s about whom or what you prioritise, and whom or what you relegate. It’s about ranking.

Christ offered no guidance here that anybody could actually use. He sort-of suggested we should consider ourselves equally bound to all — but this is impossible. All He said about those circles-within-circles of moral duty so intrinsic to all human reasoning — family, community and tribe — is that He came to set brother against brother, and we are as beholden to the Samaritan as to our own. You cannot live by such precepts.

Had I my life over, I’d like to search the world’s other major religions to see if they are less coy about competing duties. I suspect they are all coy. I think I know the reason. Morality flows not from divine teaching, but from animal instinct and the survival of species. ..."

ybrao a donkey - this blogger‷s comments:

I do not wish to interfere into or comment upon the views of Mr. Parris. Here are my own musings:

World‷s major religions thrive on fear (longing and security), hope-and-greed for worldly gains with the help of the so-called God.

Preachers all over the world had/have/will have their own agenda and priorities. Founders of religions, whether called Prophets or not, had their own priorities. In other words, their own individual personal priorities. They had nothing to do with social priorities.

For example, according to Bible, Jesus gave permission to humans to slaughter and eat some animals and eat their flesh. We have a sheep on his shoulders. We depict him as something of an embodiment of compassion. That means, blessed with compassion from Jesus, it should have lived its full life, be it four years or eight years, without being culled.

The very next day, it might have gone onto the butcher‷s table or into a barbecue. One of my readers has pointed this out as a difficult choice between survival of human (compassion to human) and survival of other creatures (compassion to animals). The priority of Jesus or his apostles/disciples, perhaps, was survival of human. Or they might not had time to contemplate on compassionary (compassional?) priorities, because they were under greater compression from the Roman Emperor and his Governor Herod and there was no time for prioritisation of compassion.

Recently, there was a hue and cry in UK about imported meat getting mixed up with horse‷s meat. Citizens have some countries have their compassion priorities fixed on some selected animals. In India, Hindus revere cows and there is a demand for banning sale of beef (cows/bulls origin). But the same Hindus do not have any restrictions or sacredness for the buffaloes. Actually, both buffaloes and cows deserve equal respect, because they have similar utility. Entire world lives on their milk. Using them as long as they render milk, and slaughtering them, the moment they are found of little commercial value, what type of priorities are these! These are the priorities of Economics. Religions and Commerce, sometimes, they concur and sometimes conflict.

So, there should be no wonder, if an individual finds that he is unable to chose among the circles within which he is locked up. For breaking through the shackles and spirals, great effort is needed.

Yet, it will not be difficult to have some real sense of equity or equanimity.

Example about compassion: Even plants have life, and sense of anxiety and pain, though may not be of the human variety. Hence, humans have to be equally compassionate to animals of all varieties (except those which kill him-her such as cobras and pythons attacking or chasing him without provocation) and plants. Human has to learn to live on a minimum-minuscule diet necessary for his healthy subsistence. This not only saves plants and animals, bt also humans themselves, by preventing obesity and diabetes. Whims, fancies, idiotic crazes and craves cannot co-exist with equity and equanimity.

Example of pupillage raised in the article referred above. Helping one‷s own apprentice lawyer or some other lawyer. Hindu Epic mahAbhArata had one similar conflicting incident, in which the narrow-selfish-instinct conquered equity.

story of drONA, the archery teacher. drONA was the royal archery teacher for pANDava and Kaurava Princes. His dearest disciple was Prince arjuna. drONA taught everything he knew to arjuna. A tribal youth by name Ekalavya wanted to join the tutelage of drONa and learn archery, but regal-bound drONa could not entertain him.

Ekalavya went back to his woods, placed an earthen idol of drONa on a pedestal and started practising archery. After several years of hardwork, perseverance and devotion, he became so adept in archery that he could outclass arjuna taught by drONA.

One day arjuna and Bros. went on an expedition to forests and found Ekalavya‷s prowess. arjuna grew envious of Ekalavya. Ekalavya declared that he learnt his art from his preceptor drONa.

arjuna went back to his fort, sought explanation from his guru drONa, for teaching something superior to Ekalavya, withholding it to the paid disciple arjuna.

drONa himself wondered how Ekalavya learnt. drONa went to forest and found Ekalavya practising. Seeding drONa, Ekalavya fell on his (assumed) teacher‷s feet. drONA asked Ekalavya for teacher‷s remuneration. EkalavyA fell again at Guru‷s feet and offered whatever he wanted.

Guru asked for Ekalavya‷s thumb. Ekalavya severed his thumb and kept it at the feet of his Guru. Ekalavya, bereft of his thumb, lost his ability to use bows and arrows. Thus, great merit was slaughtered at the feet of a selfish Guru, who could not break his obligations of slavery to his Paying-masters.

So, where are the priorities!

Sunday, March 31, 2013

#022 These Capitalists have funny ways

Day-in and day-out our Capitalist media sing the paeans of the advantages and merits of private enterprise. Economists, professors and journalists serve as accompanying orchestra. Youth engaged in marketing the Capitalist goods dance to these tunes.
The world is reverberates with the echoes produced by the propaganda.
Where does the truth lie? Truth obviously has to distance itself from lies.
Example: Growth rate in United States for the quarter Oct.-Dec.2012 is just 0.4% Reason? The Capitalist analysts attribute the low growth to fall in American defence spending and Government expenditure. They want the Government to increase its spending if the markets are to shed their sluggishness.
If the market economy and capitalism are so powerful, why should they want crutches of Government spending and defence outlays? Do they want wars to escalate so that they can produce weapons on a large scale and palm them off countries feeling insecure?

Thursday, February 28, 2013

#021 Paradox of Castel-Gandolfo

The retiring Pope Benedict XVI called himself a pilgrim, embarking on his last journey on this Earth.

Truth seems to be paradoxically different. Out of 1.2 billion followers of Catholic-Christianity, at least 1 billion are poor with no-or-scant roofs over their heads. The palaces and the gardens at Casstrel Gandolfo appear to be in-contrast to-at-least one billion followers of Catholicism. We may not, certainly, expect the retired Pope to live in a hut. But, true-retirement should probably resemble something of Thoreau`s retreat.

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

#019 Why destroy 10 million horsemeat burgers?

BBC has reported that UK is going to destroy 10 million burgers, which contain DNA of horsemeat.
It appears that in UK, people shun eating horsemeat, while in Belgium, France, Russia, people cherish horsemeat.
yb`s comments: Why destroy for the sake of sentiments? UK can export horsemeat preparations to horse-eating countries F-B-R.
Alternatively, if there are no European buyers capable of paying in Euros, UK can gift them to starving African Nations which do not have taboos on eating horsemeat.

Thursday, August 16, 2012

#018 With so much jakat why the Islamic world has inequalities?

We find that 'roja' and 'jakat' have reached zenith during this ramadan season.

With so much oil and natural gas at their disposal, sparse population to take care of, abundant roja (fasting) and jakat (gift to poor), why there are millions of poor people in Islamic countries?

We cannot 100% blame the Europe and the United States for the plight of the Islamic poor. Europe and America are exploiting, it is a separate problem to be attended to.

In spite of the exploitation, the Islamic countries are getting billions of dollars through oil exports and the income and wealth, when distributed among the Islamic population, should have made them reasonably well-off, though they may not have luxuries. What we see in Gulf is -- some are super-rich and others are super-poor.

Though there may not be perfect equality as an abstract term, there should be some perceivable equality, in concrete terms. If it happens, no poor person will stand outside the gates of a mosque for jakat.

Can the Islamic rulers and clerics look into their mirrors and see for themselves, how ugly they will be?

Monday, June 06, 2011

Capitalism vs. Environment

World Environment Day was celebrated yesterday. I furnish below some questions and answers which occur to my mind:

Q: Is there a conflict between Capitalism and the Environment Protection?

Ans: Capitalism aims at profits. Environmental Protection is not against Capitalism earning profits, as long as it in its efforts to maximise profits recklessly destroy environment.
Q: Capitalism satisfies wants. Don't you want that human wants are to be satisfied? Do you want people remain in a savageous state?

Ans: Wants are of three types. Necessities, Comforts and Luxuries. We have to chose satisfaction of necessities, if there is a conflict between environment protection and satisfaction of necessities. World Population needs to be controlled, if aggregate quantum of human necessities are going to destroy the environment to an irretrievable level. We can give some leeway for comforts. Where is the place for luxuries?
Q: You seem to have a negative approach, worse even than Buddha.

Ans: I am not against satisfying human wants. Humans cannot live happily with unsatisfied desires. I must say that Buddha was somewhat impractical when he formulated that desire was the cause of misery. We can add two adjective prefixes to this idea. Numerous insatiable irresponsible desires cause misery. Not the attempts to satisfy the basic needs of existence, security and self-esteem. What should worry us the most is: Capitalism is not just satisfying human wants. It is creating wants. It is stoking the fires of the wants created by it. During Buddha's days, there was not the menace of the Capitalism creating fresh desires.

Example: A person living in a village/small town/a developing country, may not be aware of the existence of a fancy air-conditioned car. The Capitalists not only create, but also advertise too heavily through the media, and tempt the gullible citizens to buy them. The citizens lured by the Capitalists crave to earn wads of currency. Their lives become miserable from that day. The Citizens ultimately satisfy the Capitalists' wants by buying all the cars. The Capitalists do not remain content. They create fresh wants and send them on prowling the Citizens. Thus the vicious circle goes on. Environment becomes the casualty in the sordid process.
Q: Do you think that there is a link between 'Capitalists creating the wants' and the World Recession of the 2008?

Ans: Certainly. When citizens do not have bundles of currency or drawing power in their credit cards, they can't buy. The Capitalists make a hue and cry that the fall in demand will lead to recession and unemployment. The temporary recovery being experienced by the American and Western Economies is attributable to the creation of 'fresh drawing powers' extended to the banks facing hardships and induction of fresh lending power and fresh purchasing power. But how long a Federal Reserve Bank / National Exchequer can undertake this recurring process?
Q: If National exchequers/Federal Reserves/Central Banks of countries do not support their banks and investment firms, there will be massive unemployment. Can we be callous to it?

Ans: The Governments can invest their resources for creating infrastructure to produce necessities which are sine qua non to human survival. This is different from stoking the Capitalist Fires. Kaama (Sanskrit word for desire and fancy) is to be replaced by avasya-avasara (imperative need).

Monday, May 16, 2011

Venezuela's courage

Venezuela is a country which has the courage to criticise the US killing Osama Bin Lauden. Of course, it has its own valid reasons.

US decided to cut ANTI DRUG aid to Venezuela. Venezuela's Foreign Minister called it a devil's aid. He promised to continue his fight against drugs. He also added that US aids only those countries which submit to its demands.

COMMENT: Is there any country today in the world which does not submit to US demands, including China. Venezuela's boldness deserves appreciation. At the sametime, it must realise "slow and steady wins the race".
Why this hypocrisy?

Davos Forum and WTO


Davos Forum has ended with an appeal to help the poor. We find that Euro-American countries make frequent appeals calling for help to poor countries.

CRITICAL REMARKS: Who will help whom? First of all how, the poor countries and the poor people, how were they born?

Shakespeare said in his play "Much Ado about Nothing" :

"In time the savage bull doth bear the yoke.".

When will the Europe and America bear the yoke? They know only savageousness with an icing of preaching.

Low paying employers demand high employee productivity


Low Paying employERs have high employEE turnover. Energetic youth join as freshers. Come cheap. Toil 24/7/365. Leave as soon as something better is obtained.

In a country which has unemployment, there will be no dearth of freshers. Consequently, the low paying employers will get a continuous stream of freshers. Enthusiastic to learn. Contribute a lot to the employers, with a little training and encouragement.

The employers pay a pittance. On the other hand well paying employers will have senior workers with annual salary increases.

MERITS 1. They are committed. 2.Experience raises efficiency.

DEMERITS:1. Though they want to work hard, aged bodies do not co-operate. Their energies will be dwindling. 2. Since nobody, will take them, they do not leave.

Thus, this is a paradox.